TEAM  OF  4 THE PLAYERS  TYPES OF GAMES  SCORING  TEAMOF4 STRATEGY 
figure
14 TEAM X vs. TEAM Y  3 HANDS
When TEAM Y gets a positive SCORE, TEAM X gets a negative SCORE (140) as in hand 1, Table 2 Net SCORE for TEAM X for hands 1, 2 and 3 is 30 + 0 + 280 = 310 
figure 15 BOARDAMATCH SCORING for TEAM X TEAM X won 2 boards; lost 1; and tied 1 for a net of + 1 
TOTAL NET SCORE: Let's
see who won. East/West compares their SCORE with North/South for the same
board. If both East/West and North/South got positive SCORES, then the
two SCORES are added together and the team gets a positive Total Net Score.
In hands 2 and 4 in figure 16, both halves of Team A get positive SCORES.
North / South compares their SCORES with team mates East/West.
But if both East / West and North/South get negative SCORES, then when the two SCORES are added together the team gets a negative Total Net Score. See Hands 1 and 5 in figure 16. (Team B gets a positive SCORE; Team A gets a negative SCORE.) If one half of the team gets a positive SCORE, but the other half gets a negative SCORE, then subtract the smaller SCORE from the larger SCORE. When the larger of the two SCORES is positive (hand 3 in figure 16) then the Total Net Score is positive. And when the larger of the two SCORES is negative (Hand 6 in figure 16) then the Total Net Score is negative. This method, was the way most Teamof4 matches, specially international matches, were scored. But if one team got a fairly large Total Net Score on one board, it was very difficult for the other team to catch up or even get close. If this happens in the beginning of the match, the rest of the hands will be sleepers. The other team has no way of catching up. It was some tiny, little, impish, Bridge people who were able to resolve this problem. See next page. 
figure 16 TOTAL NET SCORING for TEAM A TEAM A got 3 plus positive Total Net Scores for a total of 1070 and got 3 negative Total Net Scores for a total of 850 TEAM A won with a NET of 220 points 
IMPs  a mischievous
child; little creatures who run around and destroy peoples picnics; young
demons; a devil's offspring; a method of scoring at Teamof4 events that
reduce large swings.
It is the last definition that we are concerned with. Up until 30 years ago Teamof4 matches were scored using Total Net Score. (In some events, this method is still used.) The team with the highest SCORE won. Why not? However, a team could be doing great then blow one hand and give the opponents a large SCORE. This large negative SCORE will more than wipe out all the good little positive SCORES. How to prevent large swing hands from determining the outcome of the match? Answer: IMPs  International Match Points. IMPs round out or smooth the scoring curve. Let's see how these little demons operate. First let's look at the old way: Total Net Score. In figure 17, Team A on Hand 1 lost 460 points at TABLE 1 and lost 100 points at TABLE 2. The Total Net Score for Team A on Hand 1 is a negative is 460 + 100 = 560. Or 560 points for Team A (+ 560 for Team B). On Hand 2, Team A made 300 points at TABLE 1 and lost 120 points at TABLE 2 for a Total Net Score of 300 120 = +180 points. On Hand 3 Team A made 140 points at TABLE 1 and also made 100 points at TABLE 2. The Total Net Score for Team A on Hand 3 is 140 + 100 or +240 points. Hand 4 was a tie or a push. Adding up the positive Total Net Scores for Team A we get 180 + 240 + 0 = 420 points. Combine this with the negative Total Net Score of 560 (hand 1) we get 560  420 = 140. Or 140 points for Team A (+ 140 for Team B). So Team A lost this match by 140 points. Even though Team A did very well on Hands 2 and 3, they still lost because of the big swing on Hand 1. The big swing on Hand 1 did it. But now let's IMP it, that is convert Total Net Score on each hand to IMPs. For Hand 1 take the Total Net Score for Team A of 560 and look that number up on the IMP scale in figure 18. The IMP scale can be found inside the convention card where the private score is kept. Going down the column marked Diff. In Pts. (for 560 is the difference in points between TABLE 1 and TABLE 2), we see that 560 falls between the numbers 500  590. That range equals 11 IMPs. So Team A is minus (11) 11 IMPs. In Hand 2 there was Total Net Score for Team A of +180 points which translates on the IMP scale to +5 IMPs. (180 is between 170 and 210.) Doing the same for Hand 3, the Total Net Score is + 240. On the IMP scale this is between 220  260 which translates into +6 IMPs. Total positive IMPs for Team A is 5 = 6 = 11 IMPs; total negative IMPs for Team A (Hand 1) is 11. Net IMPs for Team A is then 11  11 = 0. Tied match. So even though Team A got killed on Hand 1 (low enough to lose when considering Total Net Points), when converting to IMPs, there was a tie match: 0 IMPs net. The IMPs smoothed out the big swing and reduced its influence. 
TEAM A got a Total Net Score of 420 and 11 IMPs. TEAM B got a Total Net Score of 560 and 11 IMPs.

figure 19 VICTORY POINT SCALE 
HANDICAPPING
& VICTORY POINTS: Suppose during a Swiss Teamof4 event one team scores
and unusually high amount of IMPs. They are playing against very weak opponents
and let's say score over 50 IMPs. This is certainly not fair to the rest
of the contesting teams.
One way to maintain equity is to have teams with similar scores play each other. That is to handicap the pairing of the matches. This of course 
has to happen after the
first round. (The first round is pot luck.) So after the first round the
team that is
first will play the team that is second; the team that is third will play the team that is fourth; and so on until the team that is last will play the team that is next to last. No team will play any other team more than once. In most events this pairing is done by computer. Still the inequity of a large IMP score may occur. The way to solve this problem is to smooth out the IMP score and put an upper limit on the number of IMPs won per round. This is done with Victory Points. A Victory Point scale along with the IMP scale will be found on the inside of the convention card where the private score is kept. Look at the 20 Victory Point scale in figure 19 below. If the teams are tied, that is the team won by 0 IMPs, then each team gets 10 Victory Points. If a team won by, let's say 5 IMPs, then the winning team gets 13 Victory Points and the losing team gets 7. And if a team won by 21 IMPs, the winning team gets 18 Victory Points and the losing team 2 Victory Points. For each match the total number of Victory Points between the two teams is 20. Note that a win of 28 * IMPs or more will only get the winning team 20 Victory Points (and the losing team 0). So if a team won the match by 50 IMPs they will still only get 20 Victory Points. This is the maximum number of Victory Points won per match. Thus with the handicapping and Victory Points, the Swiss Teamof4 tournaments are exciting, closely fought battles. Ah, but how to fight these battles. That is the strategy of Teamof4. * A win of 28 IMPs or more is known as a Blitz. 
figure 20 TEAMOF4 vs. PAIRS 
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